Adrian Raine

Professor, Departments of Criminology, Psychiatry, and Psychology

B.A. Experimental Psychology, Jesus College, Oxford University, England, 1977
M.A. Experimental Psychology, Jesus College, Oxford University, England, 1982
D. Phil. Psychology, York University, England, 1982
D. Univ. University of York, England, 2015


Dr. Raine will NOT be taking on new graduate students.

Research Interests

My central research interest lies in Neurocriminology – a new sub-discipline of Criminology which applies neuroscience techniques to probe the causes and cures of crime and violence. I direct the Mauritius Child Health Project, a longitudinal, multigenerational study of child health and development in Africa spanning more than 50 years of data collection. My laboratory focuses on risk and protective factors for childhood conduct disorder, reactive and proactive aggression, adult antisocial personality disorder, homicide, and psychopathy. We are also working on biological interventions for antisocial behavior, including nutritional supplements and transcranial direct current stimulation. Our clinical neuroscience research program encompasses adults, adolescents, and children, and we have interests in both male and female antisocial behavior. Techniques we have used in our research include structural and functional brain imaging, autonomic and central nervous system psychophysiology, neuroendocrinology, neuropsychology, genetics, x-ray fluorescence, and transcranial direct current stimulation. We take a biopsychosocial perspective in which our end-goal is to integrate social, psychological, and environmental processes with neurobiological approaches to better understand antisocial behavior, and to consider its implications for punishment, responsibility, and the law. I also have lifelong research interests in mental health, particularly schizotypal personality disorder.

Selected Publications



Glenn, A. and Raine, A. (2014). Psychopathy: An Introduction to Biological Findings and Their Implications. New York: New York University Press.


Raine, A. (2013). The anatomy of violence: The biological roots of crime. New York: Pantheon / Random House;                  


Journal Articles:


Liu, J., Portnoy, J., Raine, A., Gladieux, M., McGarry, P., and Chen, A. (2022). Blood lead levels mediate the relationship between social adversity and child externalizing behavior. Environmental Research


Raine, A., Wong, K. and Liu, J. (2021). The Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire for Children (SPQ-C): Factor Structure, Child Abuse, and Family History of Schizotypy. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 47, 323-331.


Choy, O. and Raine, A. (2021). Vitamin D sufficiency attenuates the effect of early social adversity on child antisocial behavior. Psychological Medicine,


Raine, A., Leung, C.C., Singh, M. and Kaur, J. (2020). Omega-3 Supplementation in Young Offenders: A Randomized, Stratified, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Trial. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 16, 389-405.


Raine, A., Ang, R.P., Choy, O., Hibbeln, J., Ho, R.M.H., Y.R., Lim, C.G., Lim-Ashworth, N.S.J., Ling, S., Liu, J.C.J.; Ooi, Y.P., Tan, Y.R., and Fung, D.S.S. (2019). Omega-3 and social skills interventions for reactive aggression and childhood externalizing behavior problems: A randomized, stratified, double-blind, placebo-controlled, factorial trial. Psychological Medicine, 49, 335-344.


Raine, A. (2019). The neuromoral theory of antisocial, violent, and psychopathic behavior. Psychiatry Research, 277, 64-69.


Raine, A. and Uh, S. (2019). The Selfishness Questionnaire (SQ): Egocentric, Adaptive, and Pathological Forms of Selfishness. Journal of Personality Assessment        101, 503-514.


Ling, S., Raine, A., Yang, Y, Schug, R., Portnoy, J., and Ho, R.M.H. (2019). Increased Frontal Lobe Volume as a Neural Correlate of Gray-Collar Offending. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 56, 303-336.


Raine, A. (2018). Antisocial personality as a neurodevelopmental disorder. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 14, 259-289.


Raine, A. and Chen, F. (2018). The cognitive, affective, and somatic empathy scales (CASES) for children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 47, 24-37


Choy, O., Raine, A., Farrington, D.P., and Venables, P.H. (2017). Explaining the gender gap in crime: The role of heart rate. Criminology, 55, 465-487.


Raine, A. and Venables, P.H. (2017). Adolescent daytime sleepiness as a risk factor for adult crime. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 58, 728-735. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12693