Professor Raine's research interests focus on neurocriminology and include: interaction between social and biological factors in predisposing to crime; biological treatments for aggressive and antisocial behavior; brain imaging; the development of psychopathy, conduct disorder, and violence; crime-schizotypal personality relationships; the neurobiology of spouse abuse; nutrition; lie detection; psychophysiology; neuroendocrinology; neuropsychology; behavioral and molecular genetics; neuroethics; law-neuroscience interface.
Career and Recent Professional Awards
1980: Young Psychologist of the Year (British Psychological Society).
1982: K.M. Stott Prize ("Distinguished Performance in Postgraduate Research"). University of York .
1989: Young Scientist Award, Biennial Winter Workshop on Schizophrenia.
1992: Research Mentorship Award ("outstanding faculty-student research team"; Phi Kappa Phi, U.S.C.
1993: Distinguished Research in Psychology (Dept. of Psychology, U.S.C.)
1993: Research Scientist Development Award, NIMH.1997: Distinguished Research in Psychology (Dept. of Psychology, U.S.C.)
1998: Joseph Zubin Memorial Award (awarded by the New York State Psychiatric Institute and Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic for “distinguished and creative early contributions to psychopathology research”).
1999: Independent Scientist Award, NIMH.
1999: Robert Grandford Wright Professorship (endowed chair), University of Southern California.
2003: Associates Award for Creativity in Research, University of Southern California.
2006: Fellow: Academy of Experimental Criminology.
2007: University Professorship and Richard Perry Professorship (endowed chair).
D.Phil. Psychology, York University, England, 1982
M.A. Experimental Psychology, Jesus College, Oxford University, England, 1982
B.A. Experimental Psychology, Jesus College, Oxford University, England, 1977
In The Anatomy of Violence I lay out what biological research is revealing on the root causes of crime and violence. These deep roots are now being dug up using neuroscience tools, exposing the biological culprits giving rise to violence. Read more.
My main area of interest is Neurocriminology – an emerging sub-discipline of Criminology which applies neuroscience techniques to probe the causes and cures of crime. I take a biosocial perspective in which I aim to integrate social with biological approaches to better understand antisocial behavior in both children and adults. I am also interested in wider implications of neurocriminology for the law and neuroethics.My laboratory focus on risk and protective factors for childhood conduct disorder, reactive and proactive aggression, adult antisocial personality disorder, homicide, white-collar crime, and psychopathy. I am also heavily engaged studies of nutrition to treat antisocial behavior. Our social neuroscience research program encompasses adults, adolescents, children, and toddlers, and we have interests in both male and female antisocial behavior. Techniques we use in our research include structural and functional brain imaging, autonomic and central nervous system psychophysiology, neuroendocrinology, neuropsychology, and x-ray fluorescence. We are also interested in other conditions including schizotypal personality, hyperactivity, oppositional defiant disorder, alcohol and drug abuse, depression, PTSD, and anxiety, disorders which are comorbid with antisocial behavior.
We currently have multiple ongoing projects in the Unites States, China, Mauritius, Hong Kong, and Singapore. Funding for our research has come from the National Institute of Mental Health, the National Institute of Alcohol and Alcohol Abuse, the National Institute of Child Health and Development, the Pennsylvania Department of Health, the Mauritius Ministry of Health, and the Singapore Medical Research Council. Key studies are as follows:
Health, Brains and Behavior Study (Role: Principal Investigator) This is a four-year study on the etiology and treatment of conduct disorder, aggression, and psychopathy in 11-12 year old children from the community in Philadelphia, funded by the Department of Health, Pennsylvania. Children are randomized into one of four groups (cognitive-behavior therapy only, omega-3 only, omega-3 plus cognitive-behavior therapy, and treatment-as-usual) to assess whether the combined treatment program is more effect than nutrition or CBT alone. The etiology component involves assessment of functional and structural brain imaging, psychophysiology, hormones, bone lead levels, neurocognition, nutrition, personality, social, and neighborhood factors.
Mauritius-Penn Child Health Project (Role: Principal Investigator) The Mauritius Child Health Project is a longitudinal study of child health and development. Starting at age 3, 1,795 male and female children from the tropical island of Mauritius were assessed on a wide range of psychophysiological, cognitive, temperamental, behavioral, health, and social measures. They were followed up again at ages 8, 11, and 17 When aged 23-26, they were assessed on self-report measures of crime and violence, schizotypal personality, alcohol use, and depression with funding from NIMH and NIAAA. Court conviction data have also been collected. At ages 27-30 they were assessed for all axis I and II clinical disorders using the SCID. Now in their 30's, they are having children of their own, and we have completed an NICHD-funded study on their children aimed at understanding the mechanisms underlying the intergenerational transmission of antisocial behavior within a biosocial framework. We have also been piloting a nutritional intervention to reduced aggressive and antisocial behavior in children, and are continuing long-term follow-ups on the original sample.
Intergenerational Transmission of Alcoholism (Role: Co-Principal Investigator) This is a new five-year NIH-funded longitudinal study conducted in conjunction with Dr. Susan Luczak (PI – University of Southern California) which aims to assess the development of early alcohol use in teenagers. My particular interests lie in that subgroup who are both antisocial and also alcohol users, and how developmentally they differ to those who are only antisocial or only alcohol users on putative risk and protective factors. We are using multidimensional assessment batteries which are designed to assess a wide range of processes, including biological, genetic, cultural, familial, and psychosocial factors that are part of developmental pathway to antisocial behavior and alcohol use.
Los Angeles-Penn Violence Study (Role: Principal Investigator) We have been conducting structural and functional brain imaging on a noninstitutionalized sample drawn from the Los Angeles community. We take both dimensional and categorical measures of psychopathology on these individuals, including all Axis I and Axis II disorder, but have focused our efforts on antisocial personality disorder (and psychopathy), white collar crime, schizotypal personality disorder, alcohol and substance use, and depression. In addition to structural brain imaging, we also take psychophysiological, neuropsychological, personality, and psychosocial measures on these individuals. We have now completed two community studies which are providing a rich source of data for hypothesis-testing on the biosocial bases of psychopathy, violence, and white-collar crime.
Jintan – Penn Cohort Study (Role: Co-Principal Investigator) This is a five-year NIH-funded longitudinal study of childhood antisocial behavior and environmental toxins conducted in collaboration with Dr. Jianghong Liu (PI – Penn School of Nursing). It builds on the Jintan Cohort, an epidemiological sample consisting of 1,650 3-5 year-old Chinese boys and girls whose blood lead levels were obtained in 2004, and their IQ test scores and behavioral measures were assessed at age 6 years. We have added new psychophysiological, neurocognitive and emotion measures in addition to repeating measures of blood lead, IQ, behavior, school performance, and psychosocial risk factors during preadolescent year. Our overarching goal is to assess whether early neurocognitive and psychophysiological impairments can account for the relationship between lead exposure and antisocial / aggressive / hyperactive behavior in children, and to understand how and why this may occur.
Hong Kong – Penn Spouse Abuse Program (Role: Co-Principal Investigator) We have been conducting a series of experiments on spouse abusers in Hong Kong in collaboration with Dr. Tatia Lee (Department of Psychology, University of Hong Kong) which investigate the neurocognitive and neurophysiological risk factors that put some men at risk for abusing their spouses. Our brain imaging findings have indicated that spouse abusers show limbic over-reactivity to emotionally provocative stimuli and at the same time have reduced prefrontal resources to deal with this excessive emotional reactivity. We are now working on developing a new collaboration on brain imaging.
Los Angeles Twin Study (Role: Co-Principal Investigator) We are collaborating closely with Dr. Laura Baker (PI) in the Psychology Department at the University of Southern California on an NIMH-funded twin study of antisocial, aggressive, and psychopathic behavior in 1,200 twins, starting at age 9 years and extending into early adulthood. Our sample is currently in their late teens. In addition to family, school and peer influences, we have been examining the genetic basis to antisocial behavior and how genetic predispositions given rise to psychophysiological, hormonal, neurocognitive, and psychophysiological risk factors for antisocial and aggressive behavior.
Hong Kong Project C.A.R.E. (Role: Co-Investigator) In conjunction with Dr. Annis Fung (PI: City University) this project focuses on proactive and reactive aggression in schoolchildren. This study has so far assessed over 15,000 Hong Kong schoolchildren on a range of social risk factors for antisocial and aggressive behavior. A smaller number have entered treatment programs specifically designed to tackle either reactive aggression, or proactive aggression. Our current research papers have been focusing on risk factors for reactive and proactive aggression, psychopathy, and schizotypal personality, although we are also interested in biosocial perspective on childhood antisocial behavior.
Nanjing-Penn Violence and Schizophrenia Study (Role: Principal Investigator) We have been conducting a collaborative study with Nanjing Medical University assessing murderers, schizophrenic murderers, schizophrenics (non-murderers) and controls on a range of neurobiological measures. These include brain imaging (MRI), neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine), hormones (cortisol, testosterone), psychophysiology (EEG), and neuropsychology (e.g. Wisconsin Card Sort). In addition to psychosocial and demographic factors, a detailed forensic assessment is also made and includes the constructs of psychopathy and proactive-reactive aggression. Our key collaborator in Nanjing is Dr. Chenbo Han., Head of Forensic Psychiatry at Nanjing Medical University.
Glenn, A.L., Raine, A., Yaralian, P.S. and Yang, Y. (2010). Increased volume of the striatum in psychopathic individuals. Biological Psychiatry 67 52-58.
Gao, Y., Raine, A., Venables, P.H., Dawson, M.E. and Mednick, S.A. (2010). The development of electrodermal fear conditioning in children from ages 3 to 8 years. Developmental Science 13 201-212.
Fite, P.J., Raine, A. Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Loeber, R., and Pardini, D.A. (2010). Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Adolescent Males: Examining Differential Outcomes 10-Years Later in Early Adulthood. Criminal Justice and Behavior 37 141-157.
Gao, Y., Raine, A., Venables, P.H., Dawson, M.E. and Mednick, S.A. (2010). Association of poor childhood fear conditioning and adult crime. American Journal of Psychiatry 167 156-160.
Isen, J., Raine, A., Baker, L.A., Dawson, M., Bezdjian, S., & Lozano, D.I. (2010). Sex-specific association between psychopathic traits and electrodermal reactivity in children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 119 216-225.
Fung, A., Gao, Y. and Raine, A. (2010). The utility of the child and adolescent psychopathy construct in Hong Kong, China. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 39 134-140.
Gao, Y., Raine, A., Venables, P. H., Dawson, M. E., & Mednick, S. A. (2010). Reduced electrodermal fear conditioning from ages 3 to 8 years is associated with aggressive behavior at age 8 years. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 51 550-558.
Gao, Y. and Raine, A. (2010). Successful and unsuccessful psychopaths: A neurobiological model. Behavioral Sciences and the Law 28 194-210.Chan, S.C., Raine, A., and Lee, T.M.C. (2010). Attentional bias towards negative affect stimuli and reactive aggression in male batterers. Psychiatry Research 176 246-249.
Yang, Y. Raine, A., Han, C.B., Schug, R.A., Toga, A.W. and Narr, K.L. (2010). Reduced Hippocampal and parahippocampal volumes in murderers with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 182 9-13.
Schug, R. A., Gao, Y., Glenn, A. L., Peskin, M., Yang, Y., & Raine, A. (2010). The developmental evidence base: Neurobiological research and forensic applications. In G. J. Towl & D. A. Crighton (Eds.), Forensic psychology (pp. 73-94). West Sussex, UK: BPS Blackwell.
Gao, Y., Raine, A., Chan, F., Venables, P.H. & Mednick, S.A. (2010). Early maternal and paternal bonding, childhood physical abuse, and adult psychopathic personality. Psychological Medicine 40 1007-1016.
Glenn, A.L., Yang, Y., Raine, A. & Colletti, P. (2010). No volumetric differences in the anterior cingulate of psychopathic individuals. Psychiatry Research – Neuroimaging 183 140-143.
Tuvblad, C., Isen, J., Baker, L.A., Raine, A., Lozano, D.I., and Jacobson, K.C. (2010). The genetic and environmental etiology of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity in children. Behavioral Genetics 40 452-466.
Raine, A., Lee, L., Yang, Y. and Colletti, P. (2010). Neurodevelopmental marker for limbic maldevelopment in antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy. British Journal of Psychiatry 197 186-192.
Tuvblad, C., Baker, L.A. and Raine, A. (2010). XYY syndrome and aggressive behavior. In F.T. Cullen and P. Wilcox (eds.). Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory. (pp. 1035-1038). Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Lee, T.M.C., Lee, T.M.Y., Raine, A., Chan, C.C.H. (2010). Lying about the valence of affective pictures: An fMRI study. PloS ONE, 5, e12291, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012291.
Yang, Y., Raine, A., Colletti, P. (2010). Morphological Alterations in the Prefrontal Cortex and the Amygdala in Unsuccessful Psychopaths. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 119 546-554.
Schug, R., Yang, Y., Raine, A., Han, C., & Liu, J. (2010). Structural and psychosocial correlates of birth order anomalies in schizophrenia and homicide. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 198 870-875.
Raine, A., Liu, J., Venables, P.H., Mednick, S.A. and Dalais, C. (2010). Cohort profile: The Mauritius Child Health Project. International Journal of Epidemiology 39 1441-1451.Gao, Y. and Raine, A. (2010). Psychophysiology and crime. In F. Cullen and P. Wilcox (eds.). The Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory (pp. 740-747). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Schug, R. and Raine, A. (2010). Crime and schizophrenia. In F. T. Cullen and P. Wilcox (eds.). The Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Yang, A. and Raine, A. (2010). Brain abnormalities and crime. In F. Cullen and P. Wilcox, and K. Schwartz (eds.). The Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory (pp. 105-110). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Yang, A. and Raine, A. (2010). Neurology and crime. In F. Cullen and P. Wilcox (eds.). The Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory (pp. 661-664). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Peskin, M. and Raine, A. (2010). Prenatal influences on crime. In F. Cullen and Pamela Wilcox (eds.). The Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory. (pp. 732-737). Sage Publications.Chung, J.Y., and Raine, A. (2010). Crime and nutrition. In F. Cullen and Pamela Wilcox (eds.). The Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory. (pp. 667-670). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Tharp, A.L.T., Sharp, C., Stanford, M., Lake, S.L., Raine, A. and Kent, T.A. (2011) Correspondence of Aggressive Behavior Classifications among Young Adults using the Impulsive Premeditated Aggression Scale and the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire. Personality and Individual Differences 50 279-285.
Moffitt, T.E., Ross, S. and Raine, A. (2011). Crime and biology. In J.Q. Wilson and J. Petersilia (Eds.). Crime and Public Policy (2nd edition) (pp. 53-87). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Raine, A., Yang, Y., Narr, K., and Toga, A. (2011). Sex differences in orbitofrontal gray as a partial explanation for sex differences in antisocial personality. Molecular Psychiatry 16 227-226.
Chan, R. C. K., Li, X., Lai, M., Li, H., Wang, Y., Cui, J., Deng, Y., & Raine, A. (2011). Exploratory study on the base-rate of paranoid ideation in a non-clinical Chinese sample. Psychiatry Research, 185, 254-260.
Yang, Y., Raine, A., Toga, A.W. and Narr, K.L. (2011). Abnormal structural correlates of response perseveration in individuals with psychopathy, Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 23 107-110.
Bezdjian, S., Raine, A., Baker, L.A. and Lynam, D.R. (2011). Psychopathic personality in children: Genetic and environmental contributions. Psychological Medicine 41 589-600.
Raine, A. (2011). An amygdala structural abnormality common to two sub-types of conduct disorder: A neurodevelopmental conundrum. American Journal of Psychiatry. 168 569-571.
Glenn, A.L., Raine, A., Schug, R.A., Gao, Y., and Granger, D.A. (2011). Increased testosterone to cortisol ratio in psychopathy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 120, 389-399.
Bezdjian, S., Tuvblad, C., Raine, A., and Baker, L.A. (2011). The genetic and environmental covariation among psychopathic personality traits and reactive and proactive aggression in childhood. Child Development 82 1267-1281.
Ericson, M., Tuvblad, C., Raine, A., Wolff, K.Y., Baker, L. (2011). Heritability and longitudinal stability of schizotypal traits during adolescence. Behavioral Genetics 41 499-511.
Glenn, A., Kurzban, R. and Raine, A. (2011). Evolutionary theory and psychopathy. Aggression and Violent Behavior 16 371-380.Gao, Y., Glenn, A. L., Peskin, M., Rudo-Hutt, A., Schug,
R. A., Yang, Y., & Raine, A. (2011). Neurocriminological approaches. In D. Gadd, S. Karstedt, and S. Messner (Eds.), Sage handbook of criminological research methods. London: Sage.
Gao, Y., Raine, A., and Schug, R.A. (2011). P3 event-related potentials and childhood maltreatment in successful and unsuccessful psychopaths. Brain and Cognition 77 176-182.
Schug, R., Yang, Y., Raine, A., Han, C., Liu, J.H., and Li, L. (2011). Resting EEG deficits in accused murderers with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 194 85-94.
Yeh, M.T., Chen, P., Raine, A., Baker, L.C., and Jacobson, K.C. (2011). Child psychopathic traits moderate relationships between parental affect and child aggression. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 50 1054-1064.
Rudo-Hutt, A., Gao, Y., Glenn, A., Peskin, M., Yang, Y., and Raine, A. (2011). Biosocial interactions and correlates of crime. In K. M. Beaver and A. Walsh (eds.). The Ashgate Research Companion to Biosocial Theories of Crime (pp. 17-44). Surrey, UK: Ashgate Press.
Peskin, M., Raine, A., Gao, Y., Venables, P.H. and Mednick, S.A. (2011). A Developmental Increase in Allostatic Load from Ages 3 to 11 Years is Associated with Increased Schizotypal Personality at Age 23 Years. Development and Psychopathology 23 1059-1068.
Raine, A., Fung, A.L., and Lam, B.Y.H. (2011). Peer victimization partially mediates the schizotypy – aggression relationship in children and adolescents. Schizophrenia Bulletin. 37 937-945.
Focquaert, F., & Raine, A. (2011). Antisocial Personality Disorders. In W. Chambliss Ed.). Key issues in crime and punishment (pp. 13-28). Thousand Oaks.
Baker, L., Tuvblad, C., Bezdjian, S., and Raine, A. (2012). Genetics and crime. In J. I. Nurnberger and W. H. Berrettini (eds.) Principals of Psychiatric Genetics (pp. 145-159). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Focquaert, F., & Raine, A. (2012). Ethics of community-based sanctions. In S. Barton-Bellessa (Gen. Ed.), Encyclopaedia of community corrections (pp. forthcoming). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.
Tuvblad, C., Gao, Y., Isen, J., Botwick, T., Raine, A., and Baker, L.A. (2012). The Heritability of the Skin Conductance Orienting Response: A Longitudinal Twin Study. Biological Psychology 89 47-53.
Gao, Y., Raine, A., and Schug, R.A. (2012). Somatic aphasia: Mismatch of body sensations with autonomic stress reactivity in psychopathy. Biological Psychology 90 228-233.Raine, A. and Portnoy, J. (2012). Low resting heart rate as a biomarker for antisocial behavior. In R. Loeber and B. C. Welsh (eds.) The Future of Criminology. (pp. 30-39). Oxford: Oxford University PressRocque, M., Welsh, B.S. and Raine, A. (2012). Biosocial criminology and modern crime prevention. Journal of Criminal Justice 40 306-312.
Fung, A. L. and Raine, A. (2012). Peer victimization as a risk factor for schizotypal personality in childhood and adolescence. Journal of Personality Disorders 26 428-434.
Niv, S., Tuvblad, C., Raine, A., and Baker, A. (2012). Heritability and longitudinal stability of impulsivity in adolescence. Behavioral Genetics 42 378-392.
Wang, P., Baker, L.A., Gao, Y., Raine, A., Lozano, D.I. (2012). Psychopathic traits and physiological responses to aversive stimuli in children aged 9-11 years. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 40 759-769.
Liu, J., Portnoy, J. and Raine, A. (2012). Association between a marker for prenatal testosterone exposure and externalizing behavior problems in children. Development and Psychopathology 24 771-782.
Schug, R., Gao, Y., Glenn, A., Yang, Y. and Raine, A. (in press). "The developmental evidence base: neurobiological research". In G. J. Towel and D.A. Crighton (eds.) A Textbook of Forensic Psychology. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.Glenn, A.L. and Raine, A. (in press). Antisocial personality disorders. In J. Decety and L. Cacioppo (Eds.) Handbook of Social Neuroscience.
Baker, L. and Raine, A. (in press). Genetic and psychological risk factors for criminal behavior. In Eugene McLaughlin and Tim Newburn (eds.). The Sage Handbook of Criminological Theory. Sage.
Liu, J. and Raine, A. (in press). Malnutrition and externalizing behavior. In D. Benton (ed.). Lifetime nutritional influences on cognition, behaviour and psychiatric illness. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing.Focquaert, F. and Raine, A. (in press). Biological treatment of antisocial personality disorders. In W. Chambliss (Ed.) Crime and Criminal Behavior. Los Angeles: Sage.
Glenn, A., Laufer, W. and Raine, A. (in press). Is it wrong to punish prisoners? Emotion Review
Peskin, M, Glenn, A.L., Gao, Y., Liu, J., Schug, R., Yang, Y. and Raine, A. (in press). Personal Characteristics of Delinquents: Neurobiology, Genetic Predispositions, Individual Psychosocial Attributes. In. D. Bishop and B. Feld (eds.) Oxford Handbook on Juvenile Crime and Juvenile Justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Raine, A., Laufer, W. S., Yang, Y., Narr, K. L., Thompson. P. and Toga, A.W. (in press). Increased executive functioning, attention, and cortical thickness in white-collar criminals. Human Brain Mapping.
Nordstrom, B.R., Gao, Y., Glenn, A.L., Peskin, M., Rudo-Hutt, A.S., Schug, R.A., Yang, Y., and Raine, A. (in press). Neurocriminology. In R. Huber (Ed.) Aggression. Advances in Genetics, Volume 75. New York: Elsevier.
Peskin, M., Gao, Y., Glenn, A. L., Rudo-Hutt, A. Yang, Y., & Raine, A. (in press). Biology and Crime. In F. T. Cullen & P. Wilcox (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of Criminological Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Nordstrom, B.R., Gao, Y., Glenn, A.L., Peskin, M., Rudo-Hutt, A.S., Schug, R.A., Yang, Y., Raine, A. (in press). Perspectives in Neurocriminology. In J.B. Helfgott, J.B. Criminal Psychology. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Beech, A.R., Nordstrom, B. and Raine, A. (in press). Contributions of Forensic Psychology. In G. Davies and A. R. Beech (eds.) Forensic Psychology (2nd ed.). Chichester: Wiley.
Glenn, A., Yang, Y. and Raine, A. (in press). Neuroimaging in psychopathy and antisocial disorders: Functional Significance and a Neurodevelopmental Hypothesis. In J.R. Simpson (ed.). Neuroimaging in Forensic Psychiatry. Wiley-Blackwell.
Raine, A, Rocque, M., and Welsh, B.C. (in press). Experimental Neurocriminology: Etiology and Treatment. In B.C. Welsh, A. A. Braga, and G. J .N. Bruinsma (eds.). Experimental Criminology: Prospects for Advancing Science and Public Policy. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Venables, P.H. and Raine, A. (in press). Poor nutrition at age 3 and schizotypal personality at age 23: The mediating role of age 11 cognitive functioning. American Journal of Psychiatry
Portnoy, J., Gao, Y., Glenn, A.L., Niv, S., Peskin, M., Rudo-Hutt, A., Schug, R.A., Yang, Y, and Raine, A.. (in press). The biology of childhood crime and antisocial behavior. In C. Gibson and M. Krohn (eds.) Handbook of Life-Course Criminology. Springer Verlag.
Focquaert, F., Glenn, A., & Raine, A. (in press). Psychopathy and free will. In Glannon, W. (Ed.) Free will and the brain: Neuroscientific, philosophical and legal perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Focquaert, F., Glenn, A. & Raine, A. (in press). Free will, responsibility, and the punishment of criminals. In: T. Nadelhoffer (Ed.). The Future of Punishment and Retribution. Oxford University Press.
Yang, Y., Raine, A, Joshi, A.A., Joshi, S., Chang. Y.T., Schug, R.A., and Narr, K.L. (in press). Disturbed frontal information flow and connectivity in psychopathy. British Journal of Psychiatry.
Gao, Y., Raine, A., Venables, P.H., Mednick, S.A. (in press). The association between P3 amplitude at age 11 and criminal offending at Age 2. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology.
2009-present: Member, Center for Neuroscience & Society (CNS), University of Pennsylvania
2008-2011: Chair, Department of Criminology, University of Pennsylvania
2007-present: Member, Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania
2007-present: University Professor and the Richard Perry Professor of Criminology, Psychiatry, and Psychology, University of Pennsylvania